The necessity of “Integrated Pest Management” Approach in Republic of Benin: The Contribution of Yaovi M. Gildas Hounmanou

It has been estimated that more than 40% of the world’s food production is lost because crops are destroyed by pests and diseases. Once harvested, an additional 20% may be lost during storage and transport. Aside from the economic loss they can cause, pests are a known as vector for diseases, may contaminate products and cause structural damage to facilities. Clearly, everything possible should be done to reduce further loss due to pests within the confines of the manufacturing environment.

Increased awareness of the adverse effects that pesticides have on the environment, the consumer and the safety of our food has led to the need for more sustainable agricultural production systems. Integrated Pest Management and Good Agricultural Practices have become essential components of sustainable agriculture. The integration of various control measures, where pesticides are used only as a last resort, ensures that pests remain below the economic threshold, thus supporting food safety and international market access. But without supportive and enabling policies and institutions integrated pest management will fail.

Despite the classic pest control techniques that have been promoted, food insecurity and foodborne hazards related to pest infestation are still yet to be overcome. Benin as many other countries in the world faces a dramatic food insecurity mostly due to damages caused by pests.

Because of inadequate pest management strategies, foodborne pathogens transmitted by pests and pesticide residues in food has increased and represent a serious threat to exportations.

In Benin, as a matter of fact, the misuse of pesticides in cotton farms has led to the pollution of water bodies resulting in intolerable levels of pesticide residues in halieutic resources and this is the main reason of the ban of Beninese shrimp in the international market. Moreover, pest infestations mainly flies in catering institutions and food industries are at the bases of many food poisoning and enteric diseases such cholera, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, listeriosis, shigella infections with high morbidity and mortality along with revenue loss in Benin.

The ongoing Lassa haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Benin that has claimed over 200 cases and a dozen of death is actually caused by a virus transmitted by an autochthonous rodent in food products. The effective control of this situation requires a holistic approach of pest control which is none else than integrated pest management (IPM) that can involve all stakeholders of the food chain from the primary production to consumers’ table.

There is an urgent need to implement research that will be used to revolutionize pest control strategies in the country and communicate results to decision makers who can in turn initiate trainings and sensitization to food stakeholders on IMP.

Furthermore, as many research institutes of Benin are already involved in natural product research, I would suggest research projects towards the use of medicinal plants in pest control at local level to curb environmental pollution by chemical pesticides and food hazards related to pesticide residues.

The adoption of Integrated pest management in Benin and other African countries will solve many problems including food safety and nutrition challenges, food insecurity and food loss, Public Health threats (such as viral outbreaks) and alleviate poverty by supporting livelihood.

Integrated pest management in food industry requires the combination of the 3 elements described below with a critical emphasis on GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES DURING PRIMARY PRODUCTION.

 Exclusion

This is the most effective way to control the entry of pests: insects, rodents and birds into your premises. It may be costly in the first place but will provide long lasting protection and minimal upkeep in the future.

Restriction

This process refers to the methods used in creating unfavourable conditions for pests to harbour and breed. There are many ways in which you can do this including: sealing gaps between tiles; replacing broken tiles; removing all food and liquid wastes; not leaving dirty crockery and cutlery exposed overnight; placing foodstuffs in sealed containers overnight or inside a cool room and regular cleaning and sanitation of all surfaces.

Destruction

Destruction is just a simple term which means the same thing as “pest control” or “pest management” and refers to chemical and non-chemical methods that are commonly used to eradicate pests once they have moved into your building.

THE PRIMARY PRODUCTION IS KEY

Mon coup de gueule de Juillet 2016

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FIGHT FOR AFRICAN INDIGENIOUS POULTRY IMPROVEMENT

Numerous are the constraints that thwart the exponential development of indigenous poultry in Africa. The reasons are multiple and multiform and can be nutritional, technical, socio-economic, genetic as, well, as sanitary. However, these latter have taken a heavy toll among others and have thus ruined the power of traditional African aviculture by means of a number of ailments (the Newcastle Disease for example) leading to poor productivity hence the high importation of exotic poultry breeds to the detriment of indigenous African ones.

Such situation is not without short term and/or long term negative impacts on the African poultry industry. So far, it has cost the loss of several traditional ecotypes, the high dependency vis-à-vis Western chick producing firms, and emergence of new strains of deadly disease causing agents in our settings curbing thereby the amelioration of the local aviculture.

With respect to the complicity of sanitary and nutritional measures together with sophisticated skills that modern poultry farming necessitates, it is clear that this system can never be applied perfectly in African conditions whereby most of farmers are not even trained for. Besides, the rearing facilities and equipment in these milieus are still rudimentary and artisanal.

Taking all these facts in account, it is paramount to opt for local fowl’s improvement instead of adopting blindly and imperfectly modern aviculture.

Therefore, for the local poultry promotion, sanitary improvement is essential. Nevertheless, many diseases are encountered in poultry industry with Newcastle disease being one of the principals.

Fortunately, several studies notably traditional farmers’ surveys, have pointed out that some local chicken ecotypes are revealed resistant to the Newcastle disease virus (NDV).

In order to figure out, the particular gene and more thoroughly the concerned sequences responsible for such resistance to NDV in local chicken ecotypes, a huge and interesting study is being carried out in TANZANIA and GHANA aiming at identifying such a wonderful gene in the local ecotypes and thereafter transfer them to other ecotypes using advanced Biotechnology tools and knowledge.

Results of these studies are expected to assist to circumvent the current burden that NDV constitutes to poultry industry in Africa and thus will be of great help to us front stakeholders of poultry business via biological disease eradication and socio-economic development.

Stay connected to this Blog if at all you are interested in the outcomes of these amazing studies.

Yaovi Mahuton Gildas Hounmanou

PDG. FARM TO FORK HOUNMANOU AGRICPOWER LTD.

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FIGHT FOR AFRICAN INDIGENIOUS POULTRY IMPROVEMENBT

Numerous are the constraints that thwart the exponential development of indigenous poultry in Africa. The reasons are multiple and multiform and can be nutritional, technical, socio-economic, genetic as, well, as sanitary. However, these latter have taken a heavy toll among others and have thus ruined the power of traditional African aviculture by means of a number of ailments (the Newcastle Disease for example) leading to poor productivity hence the high importation of exotic poultry breeds to the detriment of indigenous African ones.

Such situation is not without short term and/or long term negative impacts on the African poultry industry. So far, it has cost the loss of several traditional ecotypes, the high dependency vis-à-vis Western chick producing firms, and emergence of new strains of deadly disease causing agents in our settings curbing thereby the amelioration of the local aviculture.

With respect to the complicity of sanitary and nutritional measures together with sophisticated skills that modern poultry farming necessitates, it is clear that this system can never be applied perfectly in African conditions whereby most of farmers are not even trained for. Besides, the rearing facilities and equipment in these milieus are still rudimentary and artisanal.

Taking all these facts in account, it is paramount to opt for local fowl’s improvement instead of adopting blindly and imperfectly modern aviculture.

Therefore, for the local poultry promotion, sanitary improvement is essential. Nevertheless, many diseases are encountered in poultry industry with Newcastle disease being one of the principals.

Fortunately, several studies notably traditional farmers’ surveys, have pointed out that some local chicken ecotypes are revealed resistant to the Newcastle disease virus (NDV).

In order to figure out, the particular gene and more thoroughly the concerned sequences responsible for such resistance to NDV in local chicken ecotypes, a huge and interesting study is being carried out in TANZANIA and GHANA aiming at identifying such a wonderful gene in the local ecotypes and thereafter transfer them to other ecotypes using advanced Biotechnology tools and knowledge.

Results of these studies are expected to assist to circumvent the current burden that NDV constitutes to poultry industry in Africa and thus will be of great help to us front stakeholders of poultry business via biological disease eradication and socio-economic development.

Stay connected to this Blog if at all you are interested in the outcomes of these amazing studies.

Yaovi Mahuton Gildas Hounmanou

PDG. FARM TO FORK HOUNMANOU AGRICPOWER LTD.

IMG_20150516_102526IMG_20150516_102623IMG_20150516_102432

BLESSED IS THE LORD

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SCRIPTURE:
“See, I have set before you today life and good, death and evil, in that I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments, His statutes, and His judgments, that you may live and multiply; and the LORD your God will bless you in the land which you go to possess…I call heaven and earth as witnesses today against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose life, that both you and your descendants may live; Deuteronomy 30:15–16; 19

MESSAGE:
One of the certainties of life is that each one of us makes choices. When we were children choices were made for us. But as we grow up we take more and more responsibility for our choices.

One of the most important truths in life is that choices have consequences. The choices your parents made for you and the choices you make for yourself have consequences.

God has given us the freedom to choose the lives we want. We can serve Him or sneer at Him. We can live in sin or live in righteousness. We can be lazy or hardworking. We can waste our gifts or use them productively. We can choose the blessing or choose the curse. It’s all in our power. We choose the life we want and face it’s consequences.

Today, think deeply about your life. Consider the choices you make. Think about the consequences of your choices.
I pray that the Holy Spirit will help you make the right choices for yourself, your marriage, your children and career. Have a great day!

Socioeconomic impact of alcohol production and consumption

 

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Positive aspects

Local communities and governments economy

vSince most alcohol beverages require some type of fermentation, agricultural products are an important component of alcohol production. This requirement often offers opportunities to source agricultural products locally, thus benefiting rural communities, including women, who are engaged in farming activities.

vPackaging, transportation, and other services bring additional benefits to local communities, both in terms of raw materials, infrastructure, and employment opportunities

vIn African traditional milieus, alcohol sellers are one of the richest of the communities but the price of their product are low (local brews). The price comparison per liter of Tshs 3,000 (Safari lager) vs Tshs 300 (Mbege)

vAlcohol is a major economic commodity that is associated with substantial governmental tax receipts and considerable consumer expenditure. Indeed, Europe can be considered the centre of the global alcohol industry, acting as both the largest market and the major producer of alcoholic drinks

vAs taxation revenue, alcohol duties make a substantial contribution to state revenues. For example, the UK financial office received approximately £10 billion from alcohol duties in the financial year 2012/13, 2% of total tax receipts

Jobs in industry

vIn the major Alcohol-producing countries, the majority of the alcohol-related employment is estimated to be in the Hotels, Restaurants and Catering sector, which also includes jobs in pubs and bars

vWine & Spirits Trade Association state that the UK alcohol industry directly employs more than 650,000 people in the production and retailing of alcohol and supports a further 1.1 million jobs in the wider economy

vTanzania’s beer industry is a big part of the country’s economy and a big part of its fun since a large part of youth is employed in alcohol production industry such as KILIMANJARO

vSouth African Breweries employs 8,232 people. Salaries and wages amounted to around R2.2 billion. It is estimated that more than 1 million people are employed in the beer and soft drink value chain. The wine industry estimates that 197 579 jobs were directly and indirectly supported by the industry in 2003. 108 679 of these were directly employed. They estimate further that if the tourism industry is taken into account, a grand total of 256 908 employees were directly and indirectly supported in the Western cape alone.

SOCIOLOGICALLY

Through job creation and employment of people, alcohol production assist grow up of the society. Indigenous African brews apart from serving as inebriating drinks, are also an important, integral part of social community functions, such as marriages and burial. Alcohol production companies are participating to the social world development through construction of school buildings in communities, assistance to refugees, sponsoring of football activities (Heinkein). For instance, the South African breweries spend around R120million in community partnerships and sponsorships per annum

Alcohol assists people to relax, converse more easily and mix socially. It disinhibits defenses and facilitates “good company”.Alcohol has a “mystique” not shared by non-alcoholic beverages and its use in traditional rituals (locally and internationally) appears to add to the aura of special occasions. Alcohol is often used to reduce the tension of an event – impending or actual (stress). Research suggests that drinking can reduce stress in certain people and under certain circumstances. Differences include a family history of alcoholism, personality traits, self-consciousness, cognitive functioning and gender

Negative aspects

Alcohol dependency

This disease is characterized by craving, a strong need or compulsion to drink; impaired control, the inability to limit one’s drinking on any given occasion; physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating and anxiety when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking; tolerance, the need for increasing amounts of alcohol in order to feel its effects.

Direct biological Impacts

Both acute intoxication and chronic/long term excessive drinking may have adverse effects on the brain, central nervous and muscular system, liver, heart (though there are also some positive effects for certain groups of people), blood cells, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, reproductive system as well as the immune system. Its use contributes to more than 60 diseases and conditions.

vDepression

vNon-Natural Mortality and Morbidity

vAlcohol and crime

A study of prisoners and parolees found that just under half had taken alcohol or other drugs just prior to the crime for which they were incarcerated. Drinking was especially linked to rape and housebreaking offences. The levels of alcohol-related crime are particularly high for family violence offences

  • Interpersonal violence
  • Family and work problems

Drinking can impair functioning as a parent, as a spouse and as a contributor to household functioning. Most drinking requires time (often spent with drinking colleagues) and this competes with time needed to carry on family life. Drinking money often takes precedence over other household needs, often leaving the family unable to afford even basic goods and services. Alcohol can impair work performance through decreased efficiency and can lead to poor workplace safety

SUGGESTIONS

vQuality assurance of alcohol consumed

  • As many other foodstuffs, alcohol consumed are exposed to a wide range of environmental contamination, they sometimes contain very high levels of micro-organisms including those that cause food poisoning. But as we know, that food borne diseases due to microbial pathogens, biotoxins, and chemical contaminants in food represent serious threats to the health of thousands of millions of people, care must be taken for the quality assurance, at all the stages of the alcohol production chain.
    • In large companies, quality control and safety programs are a significant part of any production process. A company’s “license to operate” is granted and may be supervised by government and is based on compliance with government regulations
    • Each step in the production process is checked; safety and quality are very important to all branded products and their consumers. However the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is required in any food industry in order to ensure the safety and the quality of the product.
    • vImplementation of regulations

      • Changing the minimum legal purchase age
      • Instituting restrictions on hours/days of sale
      • Instituting restrictions on outlet density
      • Increasing excise taxes on alcohol
      • Sobriety checkpoints
      • Administrative license suspension

 

To be a successful person

For us to become successful people we need to respect at least these six principles:
1. Have your purpose and vision
2. Have a passion to live and to fulfill your purpose
3. Have a plan
4. Build your team with right people
5. Be persistent
6. Pray as much as possible
Gildas Hounmanou

Public Health and Enterpreneurship